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American Steel Development

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Veröffentlicht: 14-01-2020 um 11:39 von alliehopkins

American Steel Development
The iron industry in the United States started from simple beginnings up to the time of discovering the extensively large ore deposits in Lake Superior. The industry in the United States began at the bottom with no furnace used in the process of ore manufacturing and processing. The first manufacturers of iron in the United States had less interest in money making; they loved what they did. The discovery of iron ore in the country is related to a royal romance. In1608, a ship carrying ore obtained from the ore fields of the United States arrived in London. The ore was then used to produce more than seven tons of iron sold at twenty dollars a ton. With the products, three hundred and forty dollars was the total value of the first year business.
The Falling Creek Massacre witnessed the development of John Berkeley`s iron production company. The company was first founded by James six miles to the south from his town. Since the forest was dense, a settlement was built and called the Falling Creek. In 1622, there was an uprising of Indian people as a result of which the Falling Creek settlement was destroyed and all of its occupants, and the ironworkers were killed except the youngest son of John Berkeley.
The Heroic Period Of Iron
In 1642, the first colonial iron works were established in Massachusetts near Lynn. Eleven military officers provided five thousand dollars to the development of the company, the head of which was the governors’ son. At this time, iron was only produced in Lynn for a period of 21 years. The company got exemptions from taxation for a period of over 20 years and was given a territory over three square miles as a gift for every furnace it built. On top of that, waterways and ponds necessary for the industry were constructed. Despite the fact that the Indians were the British enemies, the company was allowed to sell its products to them. Due to the number of privileges the company received, the community in Lynn wasn`t very happy, therefore through a number of persecutions, the owners of the company were thrown out of business. The accusations ranged from the fact that they destroyed forests to the allegation of colluding with the pirates. The wife of John Gifford, the most unpopular agent of the company, was accused of being a witch, however she managed to escape. All the people were directed towards destroying the business completely.
The Aristocratic Period Of Iron
The period started immediately after the heroic period when iron was made in the American colonies by King Louis XV. At this time, the iron making was perceived as a hobby. At this time, the greatest need for iron was for military purposes. At Fredericksville in Virginia, Queen Anne financed iron works since Governor Spotswood hoped that the profits would help to pay the government’s expenses. The enterprise however flickered along for several years and became extinct.
Barons Stiegel And Hasenclever
In 1750, Baron moved to Pennsylvania from Germany, married an iron maker’s daughter and bought the furnace of his father-in-law. Due to the increased number of German workers, Manheim city was founded where all kinds of artistic glassware and iron work were produced. He formed the link between the handwork of the middle Ages and modern America that displayed many skills. Baron was an entrepreneur of his time; he managed to travel to England for business purposes and he organized iron production in America by a particular company. In order to produce iron in America, he bought over fifty thousand acres of land in New Jersey. The company had great success and was worth three hundred thousand dollars. However, his dishonest and incompetent partners led to the bankruptcy of the company in 1769, therefore, he was forced to leave the country.
Two Great American Names
There were two iron-workers who deserve special attention because they carried the names that have been honoured inAmerican history in regard to the iron industry. They were captain Augustine Washington and Abraham Lincoln`s great-great grandfather, Mordecai Lincoln. Washington had an iron manufacturing company on his farm. Washington was the owner of one sixth of the furnace developed by the company on his land. In a bid to advance the business, Washington visited England to sort out issues with the furnace and was persuaded to become the business manager. Consequently, Lincoln was a master of a forge in New Jersey in 1703.
Revolutionary time called as the patriotic period in the iron trade industry started. All the iron men in America got turned into revolutionists due to persistent hostility of the British government to the industry. The declaration was signed by four iron makers and twenty-four men from Washington’s army. Washington set a value on the friendship of the iron masters.
The Great Chain At West Point
The greatest achievement for iron makers during the patriotic period was creation of the great west point chain. The chain was stretched across the Hudson River in order to prevent the British troops from making another attack upon Albany and Kingston. The cost of the chain was over four hundred thousand dollars and weighed about two hundred tons. Sixty men, working day and night, completed the chain in six weeks.
The chain acted as a great barrier from the British troops and therefore again called for the endorsement of iron for the military use. The chain remained in place up to the end of the war and had proven useful for the military purposes.
“Protection” Against American Iron
The news on the presence of nineteen forges and six furnaces reached England and sparked the fear among the colonialists. Therefore, England was determined to deter the activities of American furnaces for its safety. The activities of the British led to the public outcry. Acts of outlawry and confiscation were passed against every English-born skilled worked in the American colonies, so as to reduce skilled manpower and competition.
Drastic actions were taken by the British parliament in 1750 against those people who made the colonies independent industrially. At the time, five injunctions were issued on iron trade in America. The injunctions included: cessation of development of rolling mills, slitting mills and tilt hammer forges in America.
Mrs. Lukens' Boiler-Plates
After the revolution Mrs. Rebecca Lukens became the most notable iron maker in America. She made boiler-plates that became extremely famous and were used for the development of locomotives by George Stephenson. Prior to the civil war American civilization was too flimsy to sustain a large industry. Raw materials needed for the production were abundant and at the same time there was increased need for steel in the community. Among the raw materials needed were coal, manpower and the mineral itself. However, the Lake Superior region had enormous deposits of extremely rich ores. The discovery of Marquette Range was made in 1844. The ores contained large amounts of steel.
History of the modern steel industry dates back to the 1850s, when steel became the backbone of the industrial economy in the world. The invention of Bessemer and proper management led to an exponential increase in the production of pure steel. Due to the Bessemer converter it was not expensive to produce steel in large numbers.
Increased demand for steel led to successful production of steel products. At the same time, there was an increased search for additional ores since more raw materials were needed. The reconstruction era started immediately after the civil war. The United States of America focused on rebuilding the nation that had been torn apart. At the same time, various cities what were coming up with complex buildings needed steel. Moreover, there was an increased demand for consctruction of skyscrapers. Various companies at this time had been founded to manage steel production processes.
The steel industry has developed over time, experiencing a fair share of frustrations and boosts. The development of the steel industry was not so easy due to the fact that there were quite a number of constraining factors that prevented the growth of the steel industry in the United States of America. However, due to the advent of sophisticated technology in the reconstruction era the United States of America saw the development and preosperity of the industry as a whole.
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