Class Abstraction

PHP has abstract classes and methods. Classes defined as abstract cannot be instantiated, and any class that contains at least one abstract method must also be abstract. Methods defined as abstract simply declare the method's signature; they cannot define the implementation.

When inheriting from an abstract class, all methods marked abstract in the parent's class declaration must be defined by the child class, and follow the usual inheritance and signature compatibility rules.

Example #1 Abstract class example

<?php
abstract class AbstractClass
{
    
// Force Extending class to define this method
    
abstract protected function getValue();
    abstract protected function 
prefixValue($prefix);

    
// Common method
    
public function printOut() {
        print 
$this->getValue() . "\n";
    }
}

class 
ConcreteClass1 extends AbstractClass
{
    protected function 
getValue() {
        return 
"ConcreteClass1";
    }

    public function 
prefixValue($prefix) {
        return 
"{$prefix}ConcreteClass1";
    }
}

class 
ConcreteClass2 extends AbstractClass
{
    public function 
getValue() {
        return 
"ConcreteClass2";
    }

    public function 
prefixValue($prefix) {
        return 
"{$prefix}ConcreteClass2";
    }
}

$class1 = new ConcreteClass1;
$class1->printOut();
echo 
$class1->prefixValue('FOO_') ."\n";

$class2 = new ConcreteClass2;
$class2->printOut();
echo 
$class2->prefixValue('FOO_') ."\n";
?>

The above example will output:

ConcreteClass1
FOO_ConcreteClass1
ConcreteClass2
FOO_ConcreteClass2

Example #2 Abstract class example

<?php
abstract class AbstractClass
{
    
// Our abstract method only needs to define the required arguments
    
abstract protected function prefixName($name);

}

class 
ConcreteClass extends AbstractClass
{

    
// Our child class may define optional arguments not in the parent's signature
    
public function prefixName($name$separator ".") {
        if (
$name == "Pacman") {
            
$prefix "Mr";
        } elseif (
$name == "Pacwoman") {
            
$prefix "Mrs";
        } else {
            
$prefix "";
        }
        return 
"{$prefix}{$separator} {$name}";
    }
}

$class = new ConcreteClass;
echo 
$class->prefixName("Pacman"), "\n";
echo 
$class->prefixName("Pacwoman"), "\n";
?>

The above example will output:

Mr. Pacman
Mrs. Pacwoman

Here you can write a comment


Please enter at least 10 characters.
Loading... Please wait.
* Pflichtangabe
There are no comments available yet.

PHPUnit version 10 released

Version 10 of the popular test framework PHPUnit has been released and is available for download. ...

TheMax

Autor : TheMax
Category: Software & Web-Development

Laravel 10 published

Laravel version 10 is available for download with a minimum requirement of PHP 8.1. ...

admin

Autor : admin
Category: Software & Web-Development

DeepL Extension Write published as beta

DeepL has released a new service called "write" that aims to improve spelling and grammar with AI. ...

admin

Autor : admin
Category: Miscellaneous

Publish a tutorial

Share your knowledge with other developers worldwide

Share your knowledge with other developers worldwide

You are a professional in your field and want to share your knowledge, then sign up now and share it with our PHP community

learn more

Publish a tutorial